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Алімов В. В.. Юридичний переклад: практичний курс. Англійська мова: Навчальний посібник. Вид. 3-е, стереотипне. - М.: Ком Книга. - 160 с., 2005 - перейти до змісту підручника

Rights of Citizens

As well as defining the powers of government, most constitutions describe the fundamental rights of citizens. These usually include general declarations about freedom and equality, but also some specific provisions - for instance, the Fifth Amendment of the American Constitution, which exempts a witness from answering a question in court if he states his answer might reveal his own criminal guilt.

Britain is unusual because its constitution is not found in a formal written document. Instead, the constitutional rights of citizens and the powers of government are found in various case-law rulings, statutes, and even in traditions. For example, the important constitutional principle that the king or queen must approve any legislation passed by parliament is simply an unwritten tradition that has gradually developed over the last three hundred years. There is a debate in Britain about whether citizens rights would be better guaranteed by в written constitution, or at least a bill of rights. Some people argue that the government has too much freedom and that it is too easy to change the constitution since all that is needed is a new statute or even a change in traditional procedure. They complain that recent governments have overused libel laws and the Official Secrets Act (to censor information in the interests of national security}, and feel that citizens 'rights have fallen behind those in neighboring European countries.

Others argue that the flexibility of an unwritten constitution is a good thing, that the lack of a written constitution has not stood in the way of a. long tradition of individual liberty in Britain, and that many countries with constitutions which look liberal on the surface suffer from oppressive governments which simply find ways to ignore constitutional rights.

In Britain, the 1986 Public Order Act requires advance notice of peaceful protests, even if they do not obstruct other people in any way. In addition, the police may order the protesters to move or break up if they anticipate serious disruption of community life. These laws are more restrictive than those in most European countries, and they are stricter than the pre-1986 laws.

Another area to consider is the ease with which an individual may obtain restitution for a wrong a public body has committed against him. In English law, the principle of Judicial review enables a court to overturn a decision made by a government ministry that acted illegally or irrationally or beyond its authorized power. In the 1976 case of Congrieve vs. the Home Office, the British Home Secretary cancelled the television licenses of people who had bought them early to avoid a price increase. Congrieve successfully argued that although the minister had very wide powers to cancel licenses, it was an abuse of his power to do this when nothing illegal had been done.

76 One important area to consider is the treatment of citizens suspected of crimes. Is innocence presumed unless guilt can be proven? How long can the police hold a suspect before they must bring him before a court of law? Is suspect entitled to free legal aid and choice of lawyer if he has no money? Can the police search a private house without first obtaining a court warrant? Are trials open to the public? Many of these freedoms are so important that they may also be considered in the category of human rights,

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(рекомендується для усного перекладу на слух):

Прецедентне право, defendant, поділ влади, plaintiff, писана конституція, rights of citizens, кримінальне право , checks and balances, судовий нагляд, місцева влада, to be constitutional, державна влада, authoritarian, багатоструктурний влада, executive power, Верховний суд, legislation,, судова влада, justice, integrity, адміністративні суди, dispersal, division, method of state power organization, self-government, differently minded (інакомислячий), abuse, impeachment.

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Інформація, релевантна" Rights of Citizens "
  1. Growth of International Law
    rights law. Nevertheless, most international law lias been created in the twentieth century. The League of Nations was set up after World War I to regulate disputes between nations. However, it failed to stop the tension that led to World War II, partly because some powerful countries did not join (US) and others left when they disagreed with its decisions (Germany, Japan}. But it led to
  2. LESSON 10 PUBLIC LAW. CONSTITUTIONAL LAW
    rights a written constitution to overuse libel laws the flexibility of unwritten constitution to look liberal on the surface to suffer from oppressive governments to find ways to ignore constitutional rights to require advance notice of peaceful protests to obstruct other people to anticipate serious disruption of community life public body judicial review an abuse of one's powers
  3. LESSON 5 CIVIL AND PUBLIC LAV /
    citizens disputes between citizens and the state law of contracts law of torts law of trusts state law probate law family law criminal law procedural criminal law well being constitutional law private citizen inheritance unjust enrichment law of persons legal remedies criminal procedure civil procedure to bring a criminal prosecution against приватне право римське право;
  4. ПРИМІТКИ 1
    Austin J. The Province of Jurisprudence Determined. Ed. Campbell R. London, 1885. R 174. 2 Див: Hart H. The Concept of Law. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1961. P. 79 - 88. 3 Див: FeinbergJ. The Moral Limits of Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985. Vol. 1. P. 34 - 52 . 4 Hart H. Op. cit. E 144. 5 Див: fuller L. The Morality of Law. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1969. P. 35 - 37.
  5. Додаткові тексти для перекладу
    rights In I960, Peter Benenson, a British lawyer, read about two students who had been sentenced to seven years 'imprisonment for drinking a toast to freedom during the Salazar dictatorship in Portugal. He joined with others to start a campaign for pris oners of conscience - people who had never used or advocated violence and were simply in prison because of their political or religious
  6. LESSON 11 PUBLIC LAW. INTERNATIONAL LAW
    rights law The League of Nations to lead to important international legislation the 1951 Convention on the Status of Refugees Domestic laws popular political support enforcement of international law many international agreements are not binding the 1966 International Convention on Civil and Political Rights the 1991 Gulf War world police force UN peacekeeping forces
  7. Lesson 4. Classifications of Law
    rights an agreement - класифікація права - аспекти, види права - правові принципи, норми - норми права, правові норми, прин ципи панування права-вирішувати судові справи, судові спори - судочинство - вести судовий процес - подати апеляцію - приводити у виконання судове ре шення - процесуальне право - забезпечувати дотримання прав і захисту пра щать
  8. П Р І М Е Ч А Н І Я
    rights and ideas of the good / / Philosophy and Public Affairs, 1988, № 17. E 252. 31 Ролз Д. Указ. соч . С. 54 - 55. 32 Там же. С. 267. 33 Там же. 34 Там же. 35 Вкажемо тут лише книги, які потрапили в наше поле зору: Daniels N. (ed.). Reading Rawls. Oxford: Blackwell , 1978; Pogge T. Realizing Rawls. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1989; Kukatas C, Pettit
  9. XXI. Права дітей
    rights) дітей, а про їх законних вимогах (rightful claims). Право дорослої людини є вираз його свободи діяльності при добуванні собі їжі, одягу тощо, п., а законні вимоги дитини мають своїм об'єктом самі ці продукти діяльності - їжу, одяг і т. п. § 338. Але так як для збереження виду необхідно, щоб молоді індивіди достатньо вправляли свої здібності, то
  10. 6.7. Безліч історій
    Які ж результати методологічних дискусій 1960 - х рр..? Чи справді дослідницька практика беруть участь у них істориків радикально відрізняється від практики попередників? Нагадаємо, що колишня ІПМ займалася пошуком в класичних працях певних філософсько-політичних цінностей. Передбачалося, що вони можуть бути використані в будь-якому суспільстві. Відповідно до такого підходу, Платон,
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