C || || || || || || || || || || Գ || || || ||
/ / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / Գ () / Գ / Գ / Գ / Գ / Գ / Գ / Գ / Գ / / /
ԳԳ → 
. .. Գ . ( , , ). - .: - 776 ., 2003 -

.., 571 .., 211 - ., 232 ( ), 269

(),

96-99,102,221,262,416

人 ., 624

.., 586

., 209, 213, 488

., 395-396, 529, 532

., 110, 111

., 155

.., 411

X., 28, 492

.., 393

, 97, 121

. ( ..), 223-224 , 22, 101, 102, 269, 456

.., 504

.., 80

. ., 172

- ., 646

., 514

, 645

.., 27

^ ., 28, 212, 216, 232, 573

., 86

, 645

.., 494

..., 418

..,

. , 655

IV, 102

., 16

.., 85

., 620 , 289 .., 387 , 17, 84, 100, 268, 288, 305, 393

.., 534-535 ., 192, 223, 422 ., 232 11, 101 , 392 ., 567 , 467

., 545, 650, 651, 653 , 124 .., 629 , 163 , 461

.., 386 ., 211 .-., 125 ., 404 ..., 484-485 .., 120 ., 27 .., 152, 244 ., 523 ., 210-211, 212, 573 .., 144, 185 ., 272-273 ., 109 . , 382-383 ., 11, 12 .., 248 .., 347 ., 36 ., 362 ., 187 ., 126 .. , 86-87 ., 187 .., 387 ., 192, 193 ., 555 ., 581 , 162 ., 113 ., 212, 521 ., 420 ., 8, 86, 176, 387, 411-412, 415-416 ., 389 ., 541 .., 187 ., 337

. ( ), ??55, 116

, 339

., 603

., 124

., 94

3., 193, 330, 564, 588

, 103

.., 364

.-., 78

.., 393

., 331, 390

., 187

. , 369

., 646

.., 410

., 10,364,397,466

., 362

., 126

.., 201-202

., 648

., 55, 170

.., 629

. ., 495

. ., 584

() .., 141, 340, 344, 351, 359, 362 , 371,422, 431 - .., 53 , 108, 110, 113, 122, 236-237, 268, 368, 394

, 652

.., 359, 366

(- .), 268

., 641

..., 283

.., 331

.., 115

., 362

.., 576

., 372

.., 264-266, 279, 283

.., 162

., 193

., 348

., 348

., 342

. 113

.., 525

.., 263

., 587

., 320-321

., 187, 214-215, 220, 228, 332, 364

., 120, 283

., 108

.., 175, 248-249, 410, 418-419

.., 306

' . 364

, 416

. , 225-226

., 598

., 193

.., 113

.., 387, 411-412, 414, 416

., 293

., 423

.., 168

.., 121

.., 404

, 548 .., 140, 204, 341-342, 344-345,353, 376, 501,606 .., 609, 623, 625, 631, 634, 641, 642, 643, 644, 646, 647, 648 ., 166-167 ., 120-121 ' .., 653 , 468 ., 14, 178 . , 268 ., 152 ..., 272 ., 344, 359 .., 531 .., 404 , 97

() ., 204,

214, 215-221, 227, 228, 229, 232, 233,

364, 548-549, 560 , 573

. ., 367

, 99

III, 235

.., 142

.., 419-420

., 16, 191, 396-397, 509

.., 516-517

.., 384

., 645

., 423

. ., 343

., 193

., 389

.., 172, 173, 174

., 624

³ ., 211

³ .., 614, 620

.., 560

³ . , 13, 63, 07-108, 180, 244,

266-267, 272, 290

³ , 202

., 93, 183

³ ., 54, 164, 168, 230, 418 .., 360 ³ .., 230, 248 ³ . ., 495 ³ ., 367 .., 412 , 235, 236 .., 387, 592 ., 388 .., 5 ., 624 . ., 410

( .), 240-241, 244, 292

( ..), 98, 123,

279-280, 290, 328, 382

., 14, 79

 ., 393

., 19

., 166

.., 385

.., 453

., 549

., 530

.., 412

泺 ., 369

.., 388-389, 561, 568, 577, 582-583, 584,

585-586, 587, 591, 594

., 195

, 481

., 241

., 356

., 536

., 106

..., 241-243, 244, 246, 284-287,

354, 355

, 241

̳, 91-92

., 191, 249-250

.., 18, 116, 271, 272, 273, 278,

290-291

., 530, 546 , 392

.., 116, 239-240, 278-279 , 92, 98

.., 157, 158, 246, 387 ., 410 , 99, 100 ó ., 123

ó ..., 152, 292-293, 294, 296, 299, 300

ó .., 232 ó ., 562 ó ., 578 ., 204, 606 ó ., 78 .., 493, 494, 503 ó ., 187 ó, 267

ó ., 78, 86, 384, 644, 645 .., 97

.., 547, 577, 589, 593, 602 ., 54, 111-112,354, 521 .., 84, 86, 87, 152,174, 185, 418

.., 204, 606, 607

.., 116

., 314, 319

., 321-324, 325, 327 , 328, 330

., 198, 582

., 190

... , 273, 277-278, 281, 354

., 202

, 392

., 453

., 518, 556

.., 341

(Ϻ) .., 404, 497,

525-526

., 585

, 280

.., 246

., 53, 54

.., 360

., 320

.., 594, 597, 599, 600, 604, 654

.., 162

. ( .), 111, 114

., 8

.., 168

.., 141

., 207

., 152

.., 5, 14, 79, 179, 180,

181-183, 387, 421-422

., 11, 171, 174, 370

.., 10, 94, 133-134, 223,

397-398, 399

.., 418

.., 474

., 474

., 656

., 198, 548

.., 86

.., 401

., 590

., 116

. 347 - 348, 350, 351

, 102

.., 14, 90, 91, 158-161,

173,174,180, 183,184, 254, 387

.., 143

., 201

. , 282

.., 167,404

., 193

1, 162

.., 344

.., 388

., 604

., 113

., 54, 230

., 476-477

, 560

.., 558, 602, 656

, 99, 100

.., 137

.., 117 .., 118 ., 515 .., 345 ., 431 ., 515

., 324-327, 328, 330, 343, 357 , 77, 592 , 21 ., 555 ij ., 273, 278, 291 ij, 99, 115 . ., 423 ij , 288 .., 393, 423 .., 458

- .., 169, 360, 361 - ., 645 , 109 .., 511 ., 126 ., 187 ., 588 .., 193, 198 .., 401 . ., 369,417-418 ., 647 .., 190, 372 - ., 206, 207-208, 213, 488, 573

. ., 92 .., 147-151 ., 404 .-., 269-270, 271 ., 167 .., 116 ., 18, 170, 171, 371 , 102 ., 5-6

.., 386, 557, 564, 578, 586, 592 .., 185 . , 341

, 8 ', 64 ., 236 .., 370, 386 ., 541 ., 366 . ., 85, 408 , 392, 393 .., 396 .., 575 dz .., 414 dz .., 493

dz' . ., 517, 530, 608, 614

.., 148

., 612, 641,642

., 523

., 331-332

.., 80

. ., 496

.., 369-370, 386-387, 418

^ ^ , 104, 105, 180

III (), 235, 471

IV (), 480

.., 637

.., 517, 550, 624

.., 105

., 648

, 468

(), 102 .., 133 , 265 .., 577, 597 ., 193 .., 148, 149 .., 412 . ., 142 - ., 359 .., 197-198 ., 16 , 386 , 649 , 103 , 103, 104 .., 393, 423 ., 10 , 102 .., 594 ., 557 ., 554 .., 555 ., 650

( ), 459 ., 530 ., 533, 562 .. (. ), 289-290 ., 193 ., 240 ., 177 ., 546 .., 12, 244 .., 636

.

. 206, 207-208, 213, 488, 573

.., 15, 17,357

, 265

, 464

, 468

., 378, 380

., 371-372

.., 94

.., 11,91, 393, 416

., 109

., 87

, 624, 641, 652, 656

.., 593, 597, 598, 602,

603, 637

( ), 289 ., 85

^ ^ , 35, 69, 342, 352, 376, 548, 607

, 14, 178-179

.., 506

.., 396

( .), 121

.., 363 ., 383 ., 607 ., 532, 534 ., 116, 306-307 , 201, 202 .., 246-247 ʳ . ., 149 ʳ ., 544-545

ʳ볳 ., 58, 165, 175, 478, 483, 484, 485

, 109

ʳ 11, 265, 456

.., 154, 155, 245

.., 562, 567, 572

ʳ ., 533

ʳ ., 556

(

), 459

., 484

., 43

. , 345

..., 376

, 194

.., 79, 181, 183

., 503, 532

.., 528, 548

.., 13, 247

., 584

.., 142

. ., 430

., 169, 358-359, 360

.., 398

() ., 510

., 386

.., 593

.., 38

.., 431

., 600

., 109, 481

.., 383-384

.., 344

.., 291

..., 117-118, 281 328, 390

.., 609, 630 .., 147, 148 , 265 ., 18,221,330, 390 , 392 ., 174 .., 431 ., 651 - 652 .., 496 .., 526 ., 640 . ., 148 .., 393, 423 ., 495 .., 280 ., 371 ., 474 ., 211 ..., 364 , 558 . ., 586-587 ., 499 .., 372 ., 562 .., 43 ., 585 ., 649 ., 520 ࿿ .., 344 ., 380 . ., 389 .., 647 .., 148 .., 182 , 305 , 101 .., 522 ., 243-244 .., 431 .., 582

., 611

., 520

.., 14, 377

, 196-197, 333, 499, 520

., 535

., 338-339, 425

.., 223, 361

., 522

() .., 141, 165

' ., 619, 644

' ., 532

., 398

., 364

., 157, 246, 378, 380

., 393

., 599

.., 162

., 80

.., 161

.., 273

, 13,359

.., 175-176

-, 392

. ., 355

., 228

.., 547, 555, 653

., 152

 ., 241-242

., 498-499

., 355, 362

.., 110, 111

. ., 541

., 377

. ( ), 167

., 84-85

111, 265

, 269

.., 589-590 .., 419 ., 530 , 468 ..., 291-292, 300 ., 262 ., 21, 69, 76, 131, 139, 204-205, 363, 388, 495, 498, 500, 504, 606 ., 189-190, 374 ., 189-190, 374 ., 522-523 ., 333, 387, 584 ., 161, 179 ., 162 ., 156, 529 , 199 ., 122, 238-239 ., 364 ., 382 .., 582 ˳ .., 348 ˳ .., 572 .., 19 ˳ ., 193 ., 590 .., 58 , 384-385 - ., 515 .., 622 ., 112 ., 501 .., 563-564, 61! ( ), 1UU ' .., 99 ' .., 182-183 .., 20, 360-361 ., 81 ., 511 XIV, 269 ?? XVI, 293 XVIII, 293 ., 205, 497, 606 .., 86 .., 495 .., 114, 119, 239, 290 ( ) ., 481 , 515

.., 331 , 21 ., 369 ., 550 , 511 ., 515 ., 126 ., 408 , 515 , 369 -ͳ , 230-232 .., 170 ., 654

.., 105-106, 120, 236, 263-264

., 602 ., 170, 347 .., 315-316, 538 ., 182 ., 645 ., 581 .., 393, 423 .., 282 ., 377 .., 206, 208, 213, 216 ., 162 .., 44 .., 384 .., 115

, 21,125,128,132,134,139,140,151,187, 221, 249, 331-338,343,350,351,352, 353,354,362, 422,425,426,429,437,479, 509,510,519, 520, 528, 529, 548 , 408, 528 ., 363

.-, 517, 527, 534, 536, 537-538,

539, 540, 545, 550

., 109,111

., 494

, 345

.., 341

., 592

.., 163-164,418 ., 193 ., 625 ., 190, 372 ., 367 ., 585 ., 364

, 552, 553, 554, 556,

557, 608, 619

. ., 195,542

.., 542

., 13, 164, 230

.., 431

() ..., 28, 453

., 216

., 290

, 345

., 170

뺺 .., 371, 622

, 288

. ., 412

., 362

.. , 152, 283

. (), 85

., 211

.., 367

̳ ., 16, 223, 381-382, 384,

501,510, 538

̳ .., 356

̳., 114-115, 116, 119, 271,356

̳ .., 367-368

̳ ., 611

̳ , 503

̳ .., 20

̳ .., 85

̳ ., 581

..., 293, 294, 295, 296, 297-298, 300, 477 ̳ ., 113, 116, 356 ̳ ..., 282 ., 594 . ., 580

., 140, 379-380

̳ ., 94, 244

.., 372-373

., 106-107

., 408

., 43

., 145

., 305

-.., 293

., 170

., 111, 114

' .., 123, 270-271, 366, 368, 383 ó , ., 289 ., 656

.., 28-29, 42, 115, 169, 189

.., 401

, 114, 118,272,290

., 525

., 167

., 167

., 494

Mo-, 392

., 645

., 499

., 201

.., 43

, 416

., 646

.., 369

.., 170

., 203, 210, 211

., 538

.., 530

.., 347

, 11, 161, 282

., 641

.., 304

., 430

ͺ .., 577, 587, 639

.., 145

( ), 459 .., 148 .

( ..), 417 .., 355 .., 28

.., 129, 148, 149

(), 121

ͳ ., 430

ͳ ., 635

ͳ .., 383, 385

., 187, 224-225, 226, 227

ͳ ., 88

ͳ ., 380, 520, 532

( .), 395

.,

. ( .), 175

., 584

.., 5

.., 431

., 54

., 110

.., 156, 245

, 468

., 6

., 348

.., 493

- ., 211

., 163

, 102

-- ., 380-381, 523-524,

528, 531

. ( .), 160 () .., 344 ., 431 ., 211 1, 120, 235 , 120 .., 404-405, 622 .., 655 .., 57

., 389-390

., 638

', 636

.., 388

( .)., 497

., 511

, 392, 395

., 191

., 278, 280

., 625

., 106

., 431

, 643, 646, 64 /

.., 387, 592

.., 363

.., 80

.., 8

.., 54, 230

.., 440

.., 80

1 (), 481

, 280

.., 346-347, 576, 578

., 120, 123

.., 147

.., 164-165, 360, 364

., 305-306

., 517, 518, 542-544

ϳ ., 387

., 364

.., 408

ϳ ., 360, 363

, 100, 261, 288, 392

.., 385, 386

. ., 12

., 339

.., 140, 141, 142, 274,

339-340,351,367, 398, 422

.., 404

, 116

., 387

.., 344, 355 ., 217, 347, 349, 350, 351

.., 12

.., 228

, 101, 104, 268

., 527

., 187

.., 431

.., 417

, 102

, 576

.., 136

.., 197

., 182

.., 16, 221-223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 331-332,381,510 .., 14, 145 ., 494 ., 348 ., 364

., 205-207, 211, 213, 216, 488, 573,611,618

.., 430 .., 344 . ., 53 .., 578, 592-593, 628 .., 377 . ( ), 87 ^ .., 593, 594, 596, 597, 598, 604-605, 622-627, 631, 633, 635-636, 638-640, 645, 653, 654, 655 () .

, 112 .., 308, 529 ., 115, 430 ., 431

., 622-624, 626-630,

653-654, 655

.., 387

- .., 170

^ ^ .,

., 524

., 623-624

., 163

., 406-407 ., 558 ., 648 ., 542 ., 94, 284 ., 163 ., 337-338 , 53, 368, 369 , 375 .., 627-628 .., 383 ., 211 ., 78 , 592 ., 319

..., 124, 239, 291, 300, 356-357

.., 430-431

., 152

.., 466

.., 574

г .., 53

г , 287, 308-311, 312, 321

г ., 93, 186

г .., 566, 574, 599

г ., 162

г ., 515

, 468

., 114, 116, 123, 356

' ., 282

., 382

.., 199

., 562

.., 358

.., 363

.., 411

., 86

., 193

, 468

, 461

., 550

., 164, 364

.., 200-201, 202, 213, 215-216, 365-366

., 162

., 537 ., 546 . , 480 .., 506 , 619

-., 18, 118, 290, 383 ., 182

., 152-153, 158, 159, 161, 174, 180, 183, 185, 186 ., 186 ,

.., 228

, 360

.., 172,369

, 643

.., 372

., 554, 556, 572, 575

., 348, 350

(

), 289

., 187

.., 155

., 561, 582

, 467

, 599

., 566

(), 448

11, 162

., 163

.., 578

., 384

, 182

.., 423-424

, 281

Ѻ ., 655

.., 163

., 371

..., 355, 364

-- .., 369

.., 368-369

- .., 262

- ., 125, 191, 197, 328,

330, 366, 390

., 188

㺺 ., 141, 165

.., 370

, 370

, 494

ѳ ., 216

ѳ ., 76

ѳ.., 656

., 364

., 265

ѳ ., 620

, 626

() .., 141, 344, 431

. ., 235

.., 185

., 148

, 556

, 199-200

.., 430

., 63, 114, 116, 117, 124, 203, 287, 308-311,

312, 318-319, 324, 348

., 163

, 638

., 211

., 569, 596

.., 404

.., 282

, 329

, 384-385, 411, 587

.., 11, 158, 235,410,414-415

, 12, 480

, 265

. , 348

., 369

.., 180, 227, 390-391

., 521, 547, 577, 606

., 369

., 18, 538

., 109

., 111, 265

-, 235, 236 ⳳ ., 548 .., 35, 66, 146, 501, 502, 587 .., 104 () .., 360 . ., 593 ., 557 .., 387 .., 12, 158-159 .., 579 ., 146, 149 .., 340, 411 .., 522-523 .., 142 .., 188, 233, 377 , 615 , 459 ., 597 .., 580 , 265 .., 136 ., 359

.., 51, 169, 189 ., 140-141 .., 590, 621 ., 379

.., 357, 360, 361, 364, 477 ., 495 ., 272, 312-314, 404, 538 , 113 . ( ..), 77 ..., 163 ., 54, 239, 268 ., 28 .., 388 ( ), 459 ҳ ., 226-227 .., 311-312 - .., 421-422 ˳⳿, 288-289 ҳ ., 512 .., 70

., 584 ., 212, 550, 551 . 187

.., 14, 79, 91, 176-178, 179,

180, 181, 183, 221,420-421

., 110

., 320

, 166

.., 590

.., 364, 520

., 193, 375

., 127

.., 141, 341

.., 561-562

.., 92

.., 388

() .., 388, 397

.., 369

.., 369, 385, 387

.., 172-173

.., 369, 387

., 389

, 527

., 565, 566

.., 247

., 193-194, 196

, 621

., 198, 523, 536, 537, 538-539, 633

.., 293

..., 292, 293-294, 296, 300, 330 ., 528

..., 116, 117,239,306,

307-308,311,330

., 533

.., 97, 156

.., 170, 188,373, 374

., 323

., 595

³ ., 232

³ ., 167

³ .., 403

., 600

., 272 ., 212 VI, 280 , 646 .., 579 , 606 . ., 126 , 393 ., 208

. . ( ), 87

, 620, 645

., 180-181

., 535

, 625, 629, 634

., 13,63, 114-115, 119,

169,442

., 347

Գ 11, 102, 269

Գ, 235

Գ ., 431

Գ ., 494, 503

Գ .., 240

Գ ., 503-504, 584-585

., 507, 584-585

.., 387, 411

, 408

, 104

.., 5

., 268-269

.., 285

.., 212-213, 214, 216, 232, 233, 559

., 17,412

., 272

, 387

3., 405-406, 407

., 196

.., 188

., 501-502, 538, 554

., 643

.., 363

., 14, 53-54, 174, 402, 420

., 628 , 636 , 92, 392 ., 193

., 198, 396, 487, 509-510 ., 19

., 191-192, 193 .., 630-631 ., 207, 208, 216, 492 ' ., 197 ., 191 , 216, 221 .. , 182 .., 547 ., 394-395, 532 .., 16, 223, 501 ., 564 ., 527 ., 211

.., 587, 627, 629 -, 620 ., 193 , 152 ., 189 .., 576

., 179, 202, 614, 657-658

., 422-423

., 201

., 377

., 515

.., 169

., 644

., 114

., 496

, 369

., 20

., 238

., 195-196

., 496

. 228

., 55, 347

., 538

ճ , 431

ճ, 163

ճ , 431

ճ , 520

, 464

., 317-319

.., 155, 245-246

., 232

, 535

, 395-396, 529, 532 , 367 . ( ), 114, 116 ., 242 ., 398 , 629 ., 80 ϳ, 560 ., 382

, 113, 269 , 97 ., 572-573 , 154, 158, 245 , 355, 358, 656 .., 185, 186 , 499 - , 232 ., 643, 645 ., 368 ., 85 ., 235 ., 574 ., 341 ., 557, 561 , 562, 5 .., 359-360 , 144,338, 383, 476 ., 398 .., 388 , 104 ., 370 (), 471 , 561, 569, 577, 587 , 534

.., 162 , 499 .., 480 .., 272 .., 283 .., 493-494 ., 493 , 372 .., 378-379, 380 .., 496 .., 393, 423 , 19 س .., 431 ., 541,648 س . ., 14 ., 241 ., 163 .., 346 , 53 , 362 , 369 ., 359 ., 544-545 .., 59 - ., 637 ., 531 , 14,54, 79, 87, 90, 91,161, 171, 174-175, 180-181, 183, 420, 532 , 540 . , 645 .., 247 ., 169, 572 ., 205

., 212, 227-228, 396

., 530

.., 280

.., 385

.., 362-363

., 517, 527, 534, 536, 537-538,

539, 540, 545, 550

.., 466

., 581

, 643 .., 201-202, 204 , 468 - ., 54, 230 , 235 ., 216

^ ^ ., 5, 21, 67, 115,125, 135,142,

187, 249, 331,343-344, 350, 353-354, 362,

425,426,429,431, 437, 479, 502-503,

519-520, 548

., 390

, 100

., 389

( .), 122

, 461

.., 10

, 584

.., 19

., 193

.., 401, 404

( IV), 8

.., 358

11, 269

., 112-113

., 162

.., 409

, 102

.., 570, 571, 591, 637, 640

.., 453

.., 617

.., 412

.., 582, 592

, 8, 392-394, 395, 532

= =
, " "

  1. 246 - 213 - 147, 213 - 227 - 61-65 303 161 ' 225 - 88 - - 128 - 14, 24 - 15 - 17, 191-197 - 17 - 17 -
  2. ³. . . .. . ( ) . 4 . 1-2. : ϳ. - 3- ., . . - .: . - 784 ., 2000
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    P. 42 ... 20-21, 63-64, .. 231126, 186-191, 353, 356-359 . 302 .. 1, 168-171 .. 301-302 .. 53 . 78 .. 358 EX. 302 .. 47-49, 64-67, 159, .. 229 225-226, 243-244 .. 271 .. 84 .. 275 () 59-60 . 42 30 ..

  5. 83, 142-143,177, 187 221 75 (, , ) 23-24 88 33 260 446-447 383-384, 398 26 -27, 125-128, 130-133 131-132
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  7. ; () ( ) ; (iv) ;
  8. . . ..
    , , . , , 䳿 - 䳿 - . . . : .
  9. 2J5.
    , '-, , ҳ . ֳ , , , (blown) , , , \. ֳ
  10. Ͳ
    (category-indicator) . 㳺 , , , , , ' , 䳺, . .,

  11. 95 271 35 185 59, 92 (, ) 79, 158, 163, 165, 177, 101-103 188,211, 215, 344 164 73, 174, 251 178, 215 107 290-292 107 37, 189 128 118, 188 92 189 82 129 73 89, 92 89, 92 246 212 72,
  12. 7.
    / . .. , .. , .. . ., 1996; .. . . 1. ., 1961. . 252 - 254; . 3. . 332-338; .. ( 31). ( 33) / / . . , , - / . .. , .. , ..

  13. 㳿 1 ' 㳺 .: . Metzger, Les concepts scientifiques, A Icon, Paris, 1926; M. Bunge, Scientific Research, 1967; M. Bunge, British Journal tor the Philosophy of Science, 1967, vol, 18, p. 265; M, Bunge, Method, Model and Matter, 1972. . ,
  14. 3.
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  16. ,
  17. ˳
    1917-1980 .. .. . -., .. ̳. ' XIV . - .: , 1986. .. ( ): . -., 1991. . . ( 19541987 ..): ϳ
  18. . . . . :
    ( ) 80, . . : ' , - ( 3. . , , . . , . . , . . ) . , . . . ϳ . .
  19. 1. ?
    . , г- ' . . , - . - ?? , - .
  20. ˳
    .. . - ., 1980. / / ³- . - 1992. - 3. . / / . - 1991. - 2. .. / / . - 1988. - 1. .. . - ., 1974.