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Գ → 
.. 2- / .: Գ ; .; -: , ; .2 - 510 , 1969 -

420

, ' 76 , 65, 89, 109, 112, 113, 139, 140, 145, 265, 267, 268, 366, 407, 408 370 , 226 458 226, 227

, ³ 72 291

65, 66, 121, 386, 404 66 66 , 406 , 406 443 251 405

38, 49, 54, 60, 62, 63, 66, 100, 125, 162, 382, 405, 416, 422 109 78

, 105, 112, 114 - 116, 396, 397, 418, 432, 449 , 443

362

, - 189, 239 , 397 , 167

462 , 406 245 , 299 , 70, 72 , ' 370 , 370, 428 , 12 358 , 221 , ' 221, 227 , 9, 18, 19 , 443 -, ͳ 241

, 259 , 82 320 59, 60 , 85, 87, 103, 149, 239, 255, 259, 449

, 113,

406, 408 111, 347-351, 353, 354 , 44,

61, 200, 347, 405 , 409 , 19 ³, ³ 370 ³, 167 ³, 85

. . . -

, ³ 384 , ó 98

, 109, 110, 422 347

, 79, 85, 87 -

89, 92, 94, 103, 149 , ' 54, 104, 105, 107, 109, 110, 112, 117, 443 207, 208 , 67 II 229 III 329 IV 329 63, 404-407 426 61, 62, 109, 387 ó 241

ó 275 ó 40, 109, 205 238 , 40, 91, 370 , 360, 434, 435,

445 358

86, 90, 353

186 , 62 I

259 , 442 , 385, 387, 388 , 12 , 241

, 20

, 401, 434, 446,

447 349 , 376, 377 , 8, 9, 54-57, 174,

241, 362, 384, 428 46, 104, 109, 134, 135, 138

, 82 ij 149, 237, 238, 380, 444 , 451

ij 59, 60, 64, 66, 104-108, 112, 237, 404, 405, 443 ij 75, 76

ij 358 ij 355 441 462

-, Գ 81, 82

67

226, 229

, 383 / 83, 84

, ' 160, 368, 372, 398, 401, 410

, 47 239 - 14

, 45, 207, 208 , 7, 161, 170, 171, 322

, 370 81

, 85, 209,

210, 250, 370, 454 IX 239

66, 135, 138, 139 , 443 , 364

, 236 , 207, 208

, 242 , 385, 387, 388 200

237, 238, 404-406 110 14, 17 , 174, 364 , ' 384 349-351, 362, 378 376, 377 , 370 , 141 , 19

, 92 , Գ 63, 64, 112, 119, 189

X 38, 370 134

, ³ 12

, 387, 421 376

, ' 382 , 120, 358 ˳, 201, 251, 353, 438 , 67, 73 , 349, 358, 382 , ̳ 240 200, 458 , ҳ 40, 105, 110, 137, 138, 249, 277, 406, 417, 443

250-252 IX 231 XI 226, 227 XIV 294 , 168 350

, 359 , 269, 277 - 258 73

, 179, 180 367 , ͳ 114, 132 78 454 355 320 II () 245 229 , 431 , 367 106, 119 ̳, 313

̳, 245 , 83 () 449 , 376 231 , 81 , ̳ 78, 81, 91,

97, 98, 260 , 59 , 80

458

, 443

,

207, 208, 245 238 ͳ, ' 402 , 98 108 , 12

, 48, 61,

213 322 44, 158, 159, 259 19

358 373 425 , 416 , 205, 379 , ' 454 , 378 , 240 , 379 ϳ 447 ϳ 59 ϳ 64 ϳ 32, 38, 60, 107 124, 125, 133, 361, 363,

365, 378, 415, 422 , 104, 238, 444, 451

31, 60, 61, 64, 66, 67, 73, 75, 76, 98, 106, 107, 110, 120, 124, 237, 242, 263 , 264, 382, 404, 429, 430, 443, 447 , 370 , ' 370 37 141 349 355 174 , ' 427 442

, 224, 260, 367, 368,

370, 371, 377-379, 387 г, 240, 259, 358, 369, 370

, 241 349 , 105 , ̳ 81, 83

446

, 431 , 208,

242, 457 62, 186 , 98, 106, 111, 117, 119, 201, 204, 238, 248, 379, 382, 383, 422, 457 , 388 -, ' 82

-, 192, 193 , ̳ 318, 321, 322 (, ) 61, 358

200 382

ѳ 62, 176-178, 182, 358

, 406, 454

, 427 37, 45, 50, 51, 98, 193, 238

193 , 80, 97, 98 , 160, 378 , 10 ѳ㳳, 7-13, 16 - 19, 21-23, 26, 28-40, 45 - 48, 51-58, 76, 141, 149, 241, 255, 370, 401, 419, 444 , 368 422 , 117 350, 358 409-412, 414-422, 424-427, 429, 430, 459,460 299

207, 208 , 370 , 438 237, 238 358 , 251 , 112, 426

ҳ, 45 109 , - 73 , () 408, 422 , 394

³ 240

,

351, 358, 359, 366 44 59-66, 405 (, ͳ) 12 320 (-) 14-16 166 , 87 , 201,

416, 426 I 229 227

230

66-69,71,73-77,117, 136, 430

, 370 , 242, 443 157

, 32, 60, 64, 65, 74, 75, 108, 110, 111, 117, 118, 135, 136, 138, 163, 237, 242, 243, 247, 347-349, 356, 357, 362, 378, 381, 382, 407, 415, 417, 436, 443, 462

, ' 77, 79-83, 85, 87-89, 92-94, 96-100, 102-104

237, 238 371 457

13, 46, 66, 104-114, 117-127, 129,131,133-139, 145, 151, 171, 238, 239, 247, 248, 348, 349, 369, 378, 385, 386, 392, 441-443 , 456, 457 302

210, 217, 347 436

, 291

-

200-202 -

109, 200 -

203 -

205

(. , , ) 43, 212, 223

(. ) 66, 68, 188 268, 351 25, 48, 53, 55, 58

(. ) -

417, 419, 420

(. , ) 48 7, 8, 13, 36, 43, 46, 65, 85. 121, 127, 232, 363, 366, 368, 369, 377, 392, 416, 419, 453 -

255-258 -

66 -

225 -

387 -

394 -

395 -

207, 222,

223, 389 -

441 , 448,

450, 458 -

143-152, 210-265 -

232, 233, 327,

439, 451 -

440 -

80, 85-89, 92 -

263, 264 -

207

(.

- , , , ) 13, 46, 104, 109, 112, 136, 137, 386, 417, 457 20

(. , , )

104, 105

139, 150, 170, 192,

232, 336, 376 219, 248 15, 16, 113, 114,211

(. ) 28, 64, 73, 121, 280, 281 -

31, 44. 130, 131 -

26 -

388 -

-

117 -

418 -

13 -

30, 380, 411

- 22, 24, 57, 386, 400 -

12, 13, 20,

34, 35, 41, 47, 50, 52, 53, 67 -

'

26 -

67, 73,169 -

426 -

405 -

(

) 30, 112, 141 -

56, 169 -

127, 129, 180 -

180, 181 -

347, 356, 409 -

386 -

179, 180 -

(

) , 47, 50, 418 -

208, 211 -

46, 58, 59,

64, 125, 127, 130, 132, 179, 385 -

385 -

386 -

359 -

133, 134 -

332 -

24, 122-127, 130,

132, 408, 412, 422 -

34 -

128 -

169

(. , , , , ) 17, 53, 55

(. , )

366, 444 ³ 20, 183, 444 -

226 -

159 -

143-152, 158,

217-222, 224 -

191 -

161 -

19, 80, 169, 190 , 192,

269 -

157 -

212

(. ) 46 ³ 124 141 -

59, 60 211 223 75 147, 454 63

(. , , ) ³ 440

³ 15, 92, 217, 232, 241, 316, 367, 373, 374, 377 -

460 163, 269 403 -

349 -

7, 361, 365 35, 37, 42, 43 , 46, 67 -

13, 21 -

409, 417, 420 -

17-

112-

10

(. , , ) -

㳿 340

284

(. , ) 150, 152-

101-

434

(. , ) 59, 73, 178, 324, 336, 392-

397-

323

(. ) 77, 140, 168, 169, 274

317, 413

(. , , ) 217, 369 24, 25 200 435 228

(. ) 35, 450-

30, 176, 177-

15

(. , , ) 7, 91, 169, 210, 233, 246, 292, 336, 347, 441, 450, 458

(. , , , )

223, 288 68, 87 () 101, 103, 153, 163, 167, 184, 192, 307, 352-

167-

279 103, 273, 460, 461 336, 339 173, 175

10, 39, 60, 405-

425

39, 46, 53, 60, 74, 109-

20-

238-

100-

43-45, 80, 99, 100, 106, 119, 210, 239-

110-

13, 14-

32, 73-

428-

140-

428 145, 150

(. ) 172

69-71, 99, 306, 326, 330 ( ) 19, 37, 43, 154, 184, 340-

270-

165-

267, 272-

273, 276-

284-

335-

156, 164, 183-

274

(. , )

211 375 388, 412 -

15

33, 333, 334, 346, 389

73, 232-

327-

275, 315-

419, 421-

233

(. ) 460 35, 67, 133, 170, 181, 183, 223, 450-

30, 67, 133, 170,

181, 183, 223, 450

(. , , ,

)

忠-

10, 22, 154,

279, 282-

349, 354

(. , ) 211, 258, 366, 379, 389, 437-

143-152, 223-

234, 439

(. , ) 24, 48, 49, 132, 418 (. , , ) 71

65 120

(. ) 15 91

27, 33, 81, 141, 228, 306, 313, 335-

19-

334-

391

346, 353, 354-

363, 364

206-

334

(. , , , ) 146 7, 101

140, 229, 230 41, 54, 56, 387,

388, 414, 418 19, 153, 159-161, 166,

170, 269, 278 ⳺ 16 -

147,

198-

202-

203 218, 219 110, 111

178, 179, 183 56 335

(. , , ) 281-

336

226, 229 101 35, 152, 172 186 18, 25, 34, 49, 53, 107, 408-

24-

24-

24-

24, 25-

23-

46, 107, 120, 121, 130, 131, 400-

129-

125, 132, 388,

423-

127-

429-

26

(. , ) 270, 271 73-

60-

34, 59, 66

(. , , ) ̳-

300, 302-304,

373, 374 ̳ 351 -

206-

243

(. , ) 12, 20, 21, 23, 53, 54, 58

(. , , , , , , , ) 12, 23, 35, 37, 53-55-

45 140 375 375

(. , ) 64, 65, 95, 126 228-

220 255

(. ) -

451, 453

-

20, 58-

26

(, , , , )

373 210, 216, 454 207, 244, 261-

211-

214 290, 313, 352

(. , , ) 105, 114, 119, 210, 214, 273-

241, 242

(. ) 392 156, 158 (. ) 15, 17

(. , ) 397 25

(. , ) 18, 19, 67, 73, 124, 134-137, 178, 422-

67, 73, 134-137,

454

(. ) ͳ 14, 17, 24

(. , ) 207, 285-

212-

213

(. , , , , , , , , , , , )

260, 262, 374-

258, 259, 261-

265

(. ) 208, 222, 231, 352 (. )

292, 333-

433-

451-

435-

150,

151

(.

, , , ) 36, 207, 231, 272 -

404, 412 338, 353-

3.45 69, 71, 161,

335, 336, 347 170, 185, 336

(. , , , ) 161, 169, 186, 351-

313

(. , , ) ³ 338-

116

(. )

461 147 17

(. , ) () 14, 15, 17, 35, 63, 110, 121, 135, 391-

16-

173, 179,

182

62, 110, 188, 387 ϳ 97, 184, 314, 338 122-126 -

38 ϳ 42-

267

(. ) 16 392

(. ) -

28'J 320

(. )

77, 210, 215, 231, 242, 292, 450, 458 (. ) 235 248, 254 281 -

200

(. ) 204 216

90, 225

(. ) 67, 75, 168 - 170, 183, 243 (. ) 337-

228-

204 216, 252 ()-

293-295, 307,

312, 323, 331 234, 244, 340 (. )

38-40 -

214-

213, 245, 253

(. , ) 32, 33, 42, 172-

18,

21, 453-

419, 421-

423-

77-

429-

429-

200 73, 74-

423-

413,416

(. , ) 13, 65, 68, 74, 105 - 108, 119, 122, 127, 129, 130, 133, 150, 403, 419, 461-

210

(. : :: )

291 -

437 52 19, 70, 72140

153, 159, 160, 164, 166, 269 318, 321, 322 24

(. ) 76, 90 12, 57, 58-

20, 21-

52-

24

(. , ) 12, 14, 15, 17

242

274, 277, 339-

337-

271,

314-

304, 305 (. ) г 22, 63

(. ) 13, 338 43, 95, 103, 189-

278-

248-

286-

205-

168-

19, 20, 80, 163,

167-

154, 159, 169

(. , , ) 212, 223

(. ) ( ) 101, 102

(. , ) 233, 241, 451 58, 69, 80, 98, 103-

280-

184-

353, 360, 379 - 280-

96, 101, 145, 209-

101, 102-

371-

281, 282, 361-

143-152, 350-

215-

431-

96-

160-

371-

250-

102, 230

(. , , , , , , , ) 160, 161, 165

239, 247, 262 145

(. ) 184, 189 19, 34, 47, 66, 67, 73, 457-

135, 136,

138

(. ) 318 ( , 볺) 44, 99, 100, 107, 129, 130, 156, 184, 185, 187, 219, 341, 368-

283-

269, 371-

42-

157,

159, 160, 267, 268-

287-

335

(. , ) -

101, 322, 340-

14 460 () 174-

173 31, 68, 187

236, 248, 252, 255, 441 (. , )

15 288 13

210, 313, 324. 339 340-

213

(. , ) () 21 16 92, 301

(. ) 223 461

10, 47, 130, 131, 154, 160, 165-167, 171, 268, 269, 271

15, 336

7-59, 76, 381, 404

-

172, 184, 408-

178 145-

363-

186, 214, 272-

363-

15, 292

(. ) 13, 31, 66, 67, 75, 76,105, 118, 139, 243, 408, 418, 430, 457

21, 116, 210

(. ) 186, 207, 208, 213, 214, 222, 223, 244, 333, 371, 445 (. ) -

15, 143, 144,

147, 207, 211, 222, 223, 245, 281, 372 20, 25, 38, 48, 52, 53, 55, 58-

55, 56-

12-

16-

57

(. , , , , ) (, ) 66, 68, 74-76, 118, 135-137, 139, 243, 457

(. ) 225, 228

(. ) -

12, 52-

25-

25 22, 165, 166 16, 104, 105, 112-114,

351, 371-

210, 215

103, 372-

224-

48, 49, 54-

27, 28, 44,

48, 53, 164, 165-

19, 26, 161-163, 166,

175, 269-

184

(. , , ) ҳ-

52 214, 223, 224, 244,

254, 259 -

153, 164, 168,

270

288 319

(. ) 26, 30 (. ) 165, 171-

166 164 -

203

(. ) (. )

383-

244 328

108, 114, 116, 338-

115

(. , )

-

39 460

167, 173, 175 25

(. , , ) 313 106, 119

262 Գ 188-

13-

404, 409-

444, 459, 461-

238-

79, 184-

156, 161, 162

(. , , , , ) Գ 68, 163, 205 -

388, 412-

388

(. , )

227 61, 62, 107, 417, 420 (. , )

16, 117, 157-159, 173, 183, 212, 234, 285, 290, 362, 371

36, 184, 260, 375-

262,

263-

101, 102-

425-

215, 217-219-

184, 185, 190-

405

(. , )

250, 252 -

435, 445 -

23 392, 430-

10, 28, 30.

32, 37, 50-

223- 338

(. ) 92, 246, 252, 255, 441 234 -

20

10, 41, 157, 199-201, 215, 286, 291-

274

(. , , )

13

107, 114, 118-120,

141, 238, 243, 246, 369, 385, 416, 442, 457 406

21, 65, 101, 107, 122, 145, 172, 188, 201, 211, 214, 232, 234, 237, 244, 250, 252, 375, 385, 392, 461-

451-

208

(. , , , ) 140, 291

= =
, " 420"

  1. 246 - 213 - 147, 213 - 227 - 61-65 303 161 ' 225 - 88 - - 128 - 14, 24 - 15 - 17, 191-197 - 17 - 17 -
  2. . Գ ;. ( 4- ), 3, 1972

  3. ³. . . .. . ( ) . 4 . 1-2. : ϳ. - 3- ., . . - .: . - 784 ., 2000
    . , . ϳ ,
  4. ɠ
    P. 42 ... 20-21, 63-64, .. 231126, 186-191, 353, 356-359 . 302 .. 1, 168-171 .. 301-302 .. 53 . 78 .. 358 EX. 302 .. 47-49, 64-67, 159, .. 229 225-226, 243-244 .. 271 .. 84 .. 275 () 59-60 . 42 30 ..

  5. 83, 142-143,177, 187 221 75 (, , ) 23-24 88 33 260 446-447 383-384, 398 26 -27, 125-128, 130-133 131-132
  6. 3J.
    , ', . ( . 2.5.) ' . , . , , ,

  7. ; () ( ) ; (iv) ;
  8. 2J5.
    , '-, , ҳ . ֳ , , , (blown) , , , \. ֳ
  9. Ͳ
    (category-indicator) . 㳺 , , , , , ' , 䳺, . .,

  10. 95 271 35 185 59, 92 (, ) 79, 158, 163, 165, 177, 101-103 188,211, 215, 344 164 73, 174, 251 178, 215 107 290-292 107 37, 189 128 118, 188 92 189 82 129 73 89, 92 89, 92 246 212 72,
  11. 7.
    / . .. , .. , .. . ., 1996; .. . . 1. ., 1961. . 252 - 254; . 3. . 332-338; .. ( 31). ( 33) / / . . , , - / . .. , .. , ..

  12. 㳿 1 ' 㳺 .: . Metzger, Les concepts scientifiques, A Icon, Paris, 1926; M. Bunge, Scientific Research, 1967; M. Bunge, British Journal tor the Philosophy of Science, 1967, vol, 18, p. 265; M, Bunge, Method, Model and Matter, 1972. . ,
  13. 3.
    308 ( ) (. 3 . 582 ) 1. ' (, " "), '. - ' ,
  14. ֲ
    . , . , . - , . , , , , - . ͳ , . , - ,
  15. ˳
    1917-1980 .. .. . -., .. ̳. ' XIV . - .: , 1986. .. ( ): . -., 1991. . . ( 19541987 ..): ϳ
  16. . . . . :
    ( ) 80, . . : ' , - ( 3. . , , . . , . . , . . ) . , . . . ϳ . .
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