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. Գ . / . . .: ,. 448 ., 2001 -

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Aufklarung - . Blut und Boden 245 Pensee (. ) 44 Philosophia perennis 14, 355, 372 Scienza Nuova - Systeme de la nature - Sturm und Drang 310, 317, 318, 354

(Augustus), . 60

(Augustinus Sanctus) 45, 226, 242, 326

, 203

(Adler) ³ 404

(Adler) 404

280

181

' (D'Alamber) 302 I 207, 264, 272-274, 278, 279 II 274 112 90

(Ambrosius) 141 10

377, 395, 405, 407 ' (D'Annunzio) 245 (. ) 122

, 34, 220, 236, 380, 394 77 300 345

(. ) 318

69, 90, 193, 203, 204, 243, 245, 300, 305, 340, 370, 381, 382

62

(Arndt) 350, 352 (Aron) 362 43, 84

, 76, 236, 237, 254, 257, 260, 326, 370, 386 (Auer) 417 5

(Babeuf ) 56

(Byron) 15, 241, 257, 324, 326

, 337, 367, 368, 376, 385 , 388, 398, 401, 402, 411, 413 (Barres) 227

425

³ 398

398

(Batteux) 323

(Bach) 15

(Bebel) 395, 409, 418

(Bayle) ' 255

(Becker Carl L.) . 226

³ 5, 129

(Belloc) . 280

(Bengel) 312

(Bentham) 127 , 143, 156, 157, 184, 211, 264, 336 (Bergson) 231, 279, 281, 310 (Burgess) (Bury) . 95

( Burke) 63, 131, 155, 167, 171, 182, 184, 214, 215, 230, 232, 244, 246-248, 250, 251, 266, 287, 310, 316, 317, 322, 346, 347 , 349, 354 (Berkeley) 284 (Bums) 409

(Bernstein) 377, 395, 406, 408, 417

( Beethoven) 15

220, 289, 305, 307, 310, 313, 335

28, 192, 289, 304

, 볺 9, 289

(Beesly) 391

(Bismarck) 64, 65, 76, 110, 297, 385 72

(Blanc Albert) 292, 401

(Blanqui) , 397, 399-401, 407, 421

(Blake) ³ 263, 317, 320 (Bloy) 293 (Blair) 6 367 (Bodin) 191, 301 (Bosanquet) 159 (Boyle) 112

(Buckle) 28, 72-74, 90, 97, 187 , 56, 398, 400

( Bonald) 216-218, 245, 261, 271, 326, 331, 349 -

(Bossuet) 71, 226, 245, 271, 340

(Brahe) 187

(Brandes) 209, 211, 255

(Brinton) 157??

203

(Bradley) 159

(Boileau) ͳ 192, 323

10, 141

(Bourbons) 268, 277, 290, 304 426

(Bourdaloue) 226 (Burckhardt) 338, 412

- Sturm und Drang

143, 382

(Buchan) 48

(Bacon) 246, 266

(Buchner) 257, 326

³ (Wackenroder) 207 (Vallaise) 268 (Vandervelde) 395, 409 (Varlin) 366 . 206

- (Washington) 60 ( Weber) 100, 118, 338 6

1789-1793 .. 24, 36, 56, 57, 99, 105, 173, 192, 209, 212, 213, 221, 222, 209, 212, 213, 221, 222, 246, 247, 266, 267, 269, 270, 277, 290, 325, 388 1789 37, 56, 57, 106, 112 1792

. 56, 226 1793

. 56 1794

. 106, 335 (Vergilus) 31, 192, 203 (Vermale) 269 (Westermarck) 196

- . ³ (Viviani) 409 272

³ (Vico) 14 - 17, 23, 28, 31, 46, 71, 77, 108, 111, 114, 118, 186-206, 262, 263, 266, 296, 303, 305, 306, 313, 340

, 53, 161

³- (Vittorio Emanuele) , 268

- (Wilamovitz-Moellendorf) 200

³ (Willermoz) 220, 226

³ III (Willem Oranje) 248, 268

³ (. ҳ) 208

³ (Wilson) 292

³ (Vignier) ͳ 191

³ (Vignet des Etoles) 221

³ (Wittgenstein)

³ 13, 15, 34, 53, 111, 134, 190, 191, 193, 203, 204, 266, 334

³ () 269

³ (. ) 8, 61, 260, 272, 273427

() 163 208

() 395, 409

(Voltair) (Arouet), ' 15, 105, 106, 188, 189, 204, 223, 255,. 276, 280-283, 296, 302, 310, 314, 316, 330 (Wolff) 366 (Wordsworth) ³ 322 221, 349 1941 377

(Wundt) ³ 79 , 279

(Galilei) 55, 73, 187, 204, 248, 250, 324 (Haller) 214

(Hamann) 232, 296, 306, 307-312, 321, 325, 349 (. ) 76, 110 (Hamsun) 245 (Hardie) 405

(Hegel) ³ , 12, 18, 28, 30-32 , 38, 35, 63, 64, 66, 89, 99, 111, 118, 119, 126, 137, 139, 149, 150, 154, 158, 159, 171, 180, 200, 270, 284, 293, 295 , 322, 340, 346, 350, 358, 369, 373, 376, 382, ??383, 407

, 35, 66, 137, 139, 149, 159, 171, 180 (Guesde) 378, 392, 394, 395, 402, 405, 411 (Heine) 123, 338 (Heinze) ³ 318

(Helvetius) 63, 126 , 143, 189, 223, 314, 320, 327, 372

() 404

(.-. ) 208

(Henri) IV 39, 60

() 208

( ) 21

(Herder) 16, 17, 23, 31, 46, 77, 118, 149, 192, 193, 195, 196, 207, 251, 295, 296, 307, 310, 312-318, 340, 347, 352, 354, 359

(Gorres) 230, 352 (Gerstenberg) ³ 317 22, 23 , 376, 391, 405, 409 200

(Hess) 339, 377, 387, 391, 393

(Goethe) 207, 308, 318, 322, 333, 358

ó (Gibbon) 54, 195

ó (Guizot) ' ó 294

428

ó (Hitler) 21, 35 - 37, 39, 60, 294, 364

(Hobbes) 127, 130, 175, 247, 262, 266, 269, 282, 283, 297

(Gobineau) 31

, 273, 279

, 279

(Holbach) 223, 227, 247, 314, 318,. 327, 333 , 15, 47, 192, 200 , 202-204, 304, 305 (Gompers) . 409 () 233, 298 144

(Gramsci) 421 (Green) ճ 138, 159 , 160 (Gros) 207

(Grotius, Hugo de Groot) 219, 247, 266

(Grun) 377

(Hus) 266

(Gooch) ϳ 211

(Hugo) ³ 206, 211, 281, 324

(David) 395, 409 I, 54 416

(Dante Alighieri) ' 77, 204

(Darwin) , 34, 35, 65, 291

304

, 76, 123, 236, 250

(Descartes) 69, 78, 101, 190, 301, 324, 370

. (Dessaint) J. 291

38, 149, 159

(Deffand) , 15

(James) ³ 65, 139

(Jefferson) 131, 224

(Gioberti) ³ 292

ij (Diderot) 223, 292, 314, 315

ij (Disraeli) 336

ij (Dilthey) ³ 118

45, 48, 128, 271, 298, 397

(Dreyfus) A. 378, 294

(Drumont) 280

(Doumic) 210

(Dupleix) 366

(Durkheim) 31, 338, 360

볺 - . 112

(Elizabeth) I 110, 268, 301 272

(Jaures) 395, 405, 406, 409, 422

(George) ( ) 273

() 298 338 񳿻 (. ) 274 ³ 405, 416 , 259

(Ibsen) . 402 (Ignatieff) 5

, - 75, 78 , 115, 124, 236 209, 233, 279

- , 207, 214, 226, 230, 249

, 144, 145, 152, 161, 222, 241, 254, 331

34

(Jan van Leiden) 60

(Joseph) II 60, 135

252

227, 249, 296, 325, 326, 343, 349, 363 , 391 (.

) 222 . 183 , 10, 134, 193

(Kabet) 402 (Cavour) 60, 211 (Calvin) 255, 266 , 133, 256, 273, 279

(Kant) , 25, 44, 108, 113 , 141-144, 152, 155, 156, 161-163, 166, 167, 183, 224, 283, 284, 307, 309, 319, 320, 363, 371 274 (Charles) I, 볿 278 (Charles) II, 278 볿 (Carlyle) 160, 241, 322, 336, 402 69, 70, 303 (Katsyama) 406

, 217, 246, 254, 255, 295, 297, 386 216

(Kautsky) 344, 379, 392, 393, 395, 405, 408, 409, 415, 417, 418

(Kafka) 48 , ⳺ 141, 146, 147, 230

(Keynes) 112, 412

(Kennedy) 5, 6

(Kepler) 74, 187

(Korner) 352

ʳ (Quinet) 209

323, 324

() 317 (Cobett) ³ 325

(Collingwood) 14, 200 430

(Coleridge) 208, 322, 325 36, 39, 53, 152, 156, 161, 213, 339, 366 , 379 (Condillac) 72, 226, 262, 280, 306, 320

(Condorcet) ͳ 11, 12, 72, 73, 134, 179, 189, 223, 228, 242, 247, 255, 263, 280, 302, 314, 335, 388

, 37, 214, 216, 230, 248, 272, 274, 317, 344

( ) (Constant [de Rebecque]) 128, 131, 172, 174, 175, 177, 207, 211, 294 I 255

(Comte) , 28, 35, 63, 65, 66, 72, 74, 79, 94, 97, 160, 187, 295, 336, 340, 369, 370, 380, 385, 391, 392

, 15, 263, 289

263, 289

301

314, 315, 349

(Costa de Beauregard) 221

(Creighton) , . 54

(Cremer) ³ 366, 392

300

(. ) 338, 395 (. ) 113, 123 (Cromwell) 86, 112 376, 402 (Croce) 14 (Krudener) 279

273 ' (Kierkegaard) 325

376, 398, 420 (Lavoisier) 112, 388 (Leisewitz) 318 (Lamartine) 292

(Lammennais) 211, 255, 259 (Laplace) ' 74 (Laski) 211

(Lassale) 131, 199, 338, 367, 391, 394, 395, 398, 399, 412, 419

401

(Lafargue) 392

(Lavater) 308, 317

(Le Caron) 191

(Lebrun) г 211

54

277431

(Leibniz) ³ 99, 186, 193, 306

21, 23, 35, 37, 63, 112, 116, 282, 297, 363, 364, 367, 378, 379, 392, 394-396, 398, 406-408, 411, 417-420

(Lenz) ̳ 317, 318 (Leon) 409 415 (Leopardi) 257 (Lescure) .-. 291 (Lessing) 352 (Lessner) 366

, , 9, 37, 123, 128, 129, 133, 145, 155, 157, 159, 161, 163, 172-177, 209, 213, 220-222, 236, 267, 268, 273, 281 , 282, 385, 289, 295, 330, 344, 359, 360, 363, 367, 380, 382, ??383, 386, 393 ˳ (Liebknecht) ³ 376, 392, 401 ˳ 367 ˳ (Limousin) 366 ˳ (Lincoln) 65 ˳ (Lichtheim) 374 (Lloyd George) 412

(Locke) 44, 128, 130, 155, 223, 244, 246, 266, 320, 321

398

(Lawrence) . 245

(Lowth) , ., . 192

-Գ (Louis-Philippe), 338

(Louis) XIV, 15, 188, 256, 257, 316, 330, 356

(Louis) XVI, 105, 257, 267, 328, 330

(Luxemburg) 376, 378, 406, 410, 419, 420

(Luther) 112, 247, 255, 266, 370

(.) 208

(Mably) 205, 302 . (Mazzini) 292, 359, 401

(Machiavelli) ͳ 13-15, 23, 186, 269, 282, 283, 297, 340, 345, 403

(Macaulay) 55, 336

(Mallet du Pan) 214

(Mandeville) 200

(Mandoul) . 292

21, 418

(Marx) , , , 20, 28, 31, 34, 35, 37, 56, 57,432

66, 67, 104, 108, 114, 118, 122, 127, 149-151, 154, 170, 180, 199, 201, 282, 284, 337, 338, 340, 342, 344, 359, 362, 364, 366-423

(Martines de Pasqually) 220, 226

. 376, 378, 420

(Martialis) 237

, 219, 220, 236, 279

150, 220, 236, 422 36, 392

124

(Mozer) 310, 316, 317

- (.. ) 207

(Mendelssohn) 223

398

(Mehring) 392

(Maistre) 63, 186, 206-298, 326, 327, 329-331, 349 (-³) (Mettemich-Winneburg) 254 ̳ (Mill) 211

̳ (Mill) 128, 130-134, 146, 158, 164, 165, 170, 172, 174, 177, 182, 283, 336, 385, 401, 402 ̳ (Millerand) 411

̳ (Milton) 239

̳ (Michelet) 55, 196, 199, 281, 306, 347

382

(Momigliano) Ap 16

(Mommsen) 55

207

(Monboddo) , 226

(Monod) 95

(Montaigne) ̳ . 301

' (Montesquieu) 31, 155, 115, 189, 215, 223, 252, 282, 288, 301, 306, 324

Mop (More) 205

(Morgenthau) 37

(Morley) 211

(Maurras) 208, 227, 245, 294

, 10, 134

203

(Mueller) 214

(Muller) 325

(Muller) 404

(Namier) . 114, 118

(Napoleon) I ( ) 64, 81, 83, 84, 160, 207, 218, 265, 267, 268, 278, 287, 294, 325, 331, 358

III ( ) 405 , 152, 170,

433

195, 245, 291, 314, 324, 333-365, 386, 406, 417, 419, 421-423

419

. 237

422

343

53

397, 420

380

ͳ . 48, 186, 245, 280, 297, 325, 343, 380, 402

(Novalis) ( ) 207, 324

(. ³) - 14, 197, 198, 202, 204, 303, 306

28, 71, 205

.

(Newman) 289

(Newton) 35, 43, 55, 63, 65, 72-74, 80, 93, 112, 215, 248, 250, 300, 320, 321 93

(.. ) 207, 208

(Odger) 392

.

(Occam) ³ 132, 134

(Omodeo) 211, 292

(Orwell) 41, 264, 283, 338

28

. 292

(Hotman) 190

209, 307

(Owen) г 205, 387

, . 267, 326

() 366, 395

(Pareto) ³ 28, 245, 297

221, 397, 400, 401, 419

() 260

(Pascal) 44, 45, 256

143, 167, 363

(Peguy) 281

() (Paine) 131, 224

349

1914 37, 377, 419

188, 193, 240

ϳ ͳ 192

(Petain) Գ 221, 269

I 9, 239, 327, 357

. 237

ﳺ, , ﳺ 306, 310 (Pirenn) 54, 55

(. ) 255 ϳ (Pitt) ³ () 321 28, , 10, 11, 17, 28, 137, 145, 161,180, 190, 193, 194, 203, 204, 233, 262, 282, 284, 298, 306, 322, 340, 372

74, 369, 375, 377, 379, 392-394, 405-407, 411, 416-418

415

, 34, 64, 72, 74, 76, 89, 96, 114, 230, 231, 320, 322, 370, 392, 422

21

28, 340

1863 405

(La Popelinier) 191

(Popper) 61

(Porson) г 62

() 90

, 15, 37, 53, 54, 72, 161, 183, 188, 192, 193, 203, 204, 214, 215, 220, 223, 227, 245, 250, 299-332, 349, 355, 356 , 362, 363 300

, 144, 236, 255, 265, 273, 293, 301, 356, 386

(Proudhon) ' 269, 367, 368, 377, 385, 387, 391, 398, 399, 401

(Proust) 45

92, 285

(Poincare) 32

274

128

(Ravaisson) 231

(.

) 321

(. ) 222

(. ) 255

(Ryle) ó 61, 113

(Wright) ̳c 412

(Ranke) 54, 115

423

(Racine) 15, 192, 203 (Russel) 48, 283

, , 10, 62, 149, 152, 161, 163, 167, 179, 209, 214, 222, 226, 228, 239, 240, 241, 249, 254, 296, 310, 359, 373, 391 375

1848 . 22, 56, 401, 403, 419 34

1917 24, 56, 57, 86, 116, 419

1917 56, 57, 86, 112, 417, 420

(Reynolds) 323

, 16, 17, 54, 196, 202, 314

(Renan) 74, 94

(Ruskin) 336, 402435

218 34, 134, 190, 334

г (Rivarol) 282

(. ) 339

-

г 292

г (Richelieu)

30, 60, 76, 110, 238

' (Robespierre) 60, 63, 112, 123, 269, 270, 294, 330 - (Rodbertus-Yagetzow) 387

, 50, 123, 194, 195, 207, 214, 231, 232, 256, 280, 263, 282, 291, 295, 296, 310, 322, 324, 336, 326, 356, 365

- (Rozmini Serbati) 292

(Rossi, Chevalier), 269

- 378

(Rocheblave) 209

(Roosevelt) 37, 412

(Russel) 306

(Rousseau) 9, 99, 105, 106, 123, 127, 142, 144, 145, 152, 156, 161, 173, 175, 189, 215, 223, 227, 243, 244, 248, 252, 253, 262, 271, 281, 302, 310, 311, 319-321, 324, 326, 329, 346, 372

(. ) 22

(Sade) , 245, 319 (Sand) ( ) 326

- (. ) 222, 228, 233, 279, 281

(Sartre) 18, 374

6

(Swedenborg) 220, 263

279

. (Seneca) 15, 26 (. ) 25 - (Saint-Just) . 245

- (Saint-Martin) - 219, 220, 227, 249, 279

- (Saint-Simon) , -, - 35, 122, 205, 207, 214, 280, 283, 295, 297, 335, 340, 367, 369, 380, 387, 388, 417, 418436

- (Saint-Boeve) 210, 211, 248, 252, 293 405, 407

ѳ (Sismondi) 213 (. ) 318, 333 (Scott) 195, 196 (Smith) 112, 130, 223 (. ) 412 10 , 164

(Salisburi) 65

(Sorel) 31, 245, 282, 297, 343, 360, 395

. 300

15, 18, 145, 192, 203

- 378, 402, 404, 407, 408, 410

- . 402, 404, 407

, 127, 213, 283, 342, 360, 363, 367, 367, 378, 402, 405, 408, 411, 416, 421 (Spencer) 72, 79, 295 264, 265, 274

(Spinoza, d'Espinoza) () 149, 154, 155, 199, 266, 322, 372 216

, 13, 72, 94, 112, 191, 216, 217, 306, 345, 352, 262

³ 35, 37, 39, 60, 364, 420

(Stal) 211, 293

(Stendhal) 207, 209, 260, 282

(Stephen) Գ 133, 211, 285, 289

, , 10, 141, 144, 145, 161

(Strachey) 412

. .

(Suarez) 245

' 54

238

156

310

112, 195, 210, 231

, 150, 159, 194, 373 183

265

() 262

ҳ (Tieck) 207, 208, 324

ҳ (Thiollaz), . 277

˳ 195

420

(Toynbee) 35, 89

(Tocqueville) 128, 177, 277, 336, 337, 402

9, 10, 25, 48, 61, 63, 105, 231, 260, 265, 269, 272, 282, 402437

(Tolain) 366, 392 (Thomasius) 352

(: ) 398

Topo (Thoreau) . 336, 402

152, 332

(Tawney) г 182

(Triomph) 211

(Trevelyan) 201

21, 420

398

(Taine) 31, 72, 74, 90, 94, 96, 97, 102, 117 (Thatcher) 6 (Turgot) 223, 340 274

³ (Wyckliffe) 266 ӳ (Whitman) 402 , 211, 222, 248, 254, 279, 341 (Unamuno) ̳ 231

, , 127, 143, 161, 236, 373, 380

397

, , 21, 31, 39, 64-66, 205

(Wells) 48

, 406, 411, 420

(Faguet) 209, 210, 211, 217, 243, 280, 329

(Faraday) 74

, 39, 230, 237, 254, 272, 294, 332, 349

(Feuerbach) . 362 (. ) 100 220

(Ferguson) 383 II, 292 227 72

Գ (Felipe) II, 256 281, 369 . 127 Գ 262

Գ (Fichte) 99, 123, 152, 157, 158-161, 195, 207, 296, 322, 347, 349, 350, 372 (Flaubert) 282, 402

(Thomas Aquinas), 216, 226, 245, 265, 370 (Thomas) 226, 249 (Francke) 312438

(France) 257

(Freud) , 31, 104, 108

(Frieburg) 366

(Friedrich) II 15, 135, 237, 268, 306, 310, 316, 355, 357

54, 193, 112

' (Fourier) 205, 336, 387, 402

(Huxley) 41, 338 (Harrington) 200 (Hale) 190 . . 366 386

, 10, 31, 63, 127, 134, 144, 193, 209, 212, 213, 220, 225, 269, 326, 386, 397, 422

(Caesar) 100, 112, 199 293 255

192, 216, 227, 255, 273, 274, 279, 281, 301, 326, 397 273, 279 (Cicero) 345

401

23 (Churchill) ӿ 116 76, 110

( . .. ) 279. (Cioran) 211

(Schapper) 366 (Charron) ' 301

(Chateaubriand) 31, 207, 214, 251, 257, 281, 326

(Scheidemann) Գ 404

??(Shakespeare) ³. 30, 31, 48, 77, 310, 345

(Shelley) 326

(Schelling) ³ 35, 123, 207, 208, 231, 232, 310, 322, 325 35

(Shaftesbury) 310 (Schiller) . . 207, 317, 321 (Schlegel) ³ 231 (Schlegel) 207, 208, 231, 325 (Schleiermacher) 207 ( Schopenhauer) 147, 322, 325 (Spengler) 17, 31, 32, 35, 89, 196 (Spener) Գ 312 (Stirner) 325 (Strauss) 291439

(Schubart) 318 (Schumpeter) . 185

236, 422

, ( ) 252, 279

269

325

(Eccarius) 366, 392

(Eliot) 63, 208

(.-. ) 319, 326

, 10, 11, 180, 209, 246, 295

111

(Engels) 74, 97, 122, 367, 369, 378, 379, 390-393, 402, 403, 406-408, 415, 420, 421

( ) 273 105, 252, 263 (Epictetus) 141, 146 149

(Erasmus Roterodamus) 132 () 179

(Juvenalis) 237, 345

- (Hume) 195, 223, 301, 308, 324, 327 (Jung) 367, 392 (Jung) 31, 310

(Jacobi) 310, 321, 322

, 131, 156, 173, 221, 226, 236, 239, 255, 258, 267, 290, 368, 388, 400

(James) I, 볿 301

(James) II, 볿 248

(Jahn) 352

, 236, 256, 301

1984. (. ) 264281, +283

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