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LESSON WHAT is LAY /?
TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS law
to set forth to maintain order to resolve disputes to impose responsibility to have a legal claim against 'aw and order settlement of disputes income tax laws to fail
t0 be subjected to penalties
право, закон -
юриспруденція, правознавство, законо
ведення, судова практика-викладати, пояснювати-підтримувати порядок-вирішувати спори-покладати , накладати відповідальність-мати право (претензію) вимоги к..,-право та порядок-рішення суперечок-закони про прибутковий податок-потерпіти невдачу; не мати успіху-неправильне утримання (податку)-піддаватися покаранням-засоби судового захисту - заподіювати
issues and disputes
to be ahead of the law
generally binding rules law responding to the goals approval and recognition to bring into line with essence of law
шкоду, здійснювати правопорушення
суперечки і конфлікти громадське бажання, бажання (воля) суспільства випереджати право загальнообов'язкові правила право, яке відповідає цілям схвалення і визнання вирівнювати сутність права
to put pressure on legislators чинити тиск на законодавців enactment of laws прийняття законів
to decide lawsuits вирішувати судові справи
common law загальне право
case law прецедентне право
procedural rules-процесуальні правила
evidence показання свідків, улика
enforcement примус, примусове виконан
judgjelment 'substantive судове рішення, вирок law to resolve матеріальне право
controversies state вирішувати спори
pressure (action) державний вплив
II Переведіть наступні пропозиції на російську мову: 1.
In our society law plays an important role. 2.
It is necessary to bear in mind that the law affects people in several ways, 3.
When it helps ordinary people to reach just agreements across social, economic and international barriers, law seems to be regarded as a good thing. 4.
When it involves time and money and highlights people's inability to cooperate informally, law seems to be an evil, but a necessary one that everyone should have a basic knowledge of. 5.
One important distinction made in many countries is between private [or civil) and public law. 6.
Civil law concerns disputes among citizens within a country, and public law con cerns disputes between citizens and the state or between one state and another. 7.
The English word "law" refers to limits upon various forms of behaviour, 8.
Some laws are descriptive: they simply describe how people, or even natural phenomena, usually behave.
16 g Other laws are prescriptive - they prescribe how people ought to behave. 10 The speed limits imposed upon drivers are laws that prescribe how fast we should drive.
GT1 Знайдіть у тексті і переведіть словосполучення:
Те resolve disputes; to impose responsibility; concept of law; to maintain order; to have a legal claim; improper deduction ; income tax law; approval and recognition; to decide lawsuits, to resolve controversies
Q Переведіть письмово текст,
звертаючи особливу увагу на термін "law":
What is Law?
In everyday lite people use the word law in many different ways.
In considering the numerous definitions of law and philosophy of law it must be recognized that one of the roles of law is to maintain order and that this is the function of the criminal laws. Another role of law is to resolve disputes that arise between individuals and to impose responsibility if one person has a legal claim against another. Between these two extremes of what might be called law and order on the one hand and settlement of disputes on the other, there are many situations that cannot be so clearly defined. For example, the income tax laws require that a person pay an income tax. If he fails to do so, or if he fails to declare all his income or takes improper deductions, he may be subjected to penalties, but he has also failed to live up to his obligations to society. In any event it is important that one bear in mind that the law is not simply a statement of rules of conduct but is also the means whereby remedies are afforded when one person has wronged another.
In one sense all issues and disputes in our society - political, social, religious, economic, or otherwise-ultimately become legal issues to be resolved by the courts. Thus it can be said that law is simply what the courts determine it to be as an expression of the public will in resolving these issues and disputes.
Another view of law is that it is a method of social control - an instrument of social, political, and economic change. 'Really law is both an instrument of change and a result of changes that take place in our society. It is difficult to determine whether the law brings about changes in our society or whether changes in society bring about a change in the law. In our legal system both are true. The law-respond-'ng to the goals, desires, needs, and aspirations of society is in a constant state of change. Sometimes the law changes more rapidly that does the attitude of the majority of society. In this event the law and our legal system provide leadership in about changes. At other times our society is ahead of the law in moving in new directions, and changes are brought about by the people who act according to their new attitude and convictions. When these changes are accepted by the rest of society, it often happens that the law then gives approval and recognition of the changes, and the law has thus been brought into line with the changing needs of society. For example, in the field of ecology various groups have put pressure on legislators to clean up the air and water. As a result of this laws have been enacted that require that devices be installed to control pollution. Here the public pressure resulted in the enactment of laws and the law was a follower rather than a leader. It is important to note that the law is not static - that it is constantly changing and that the impetus for the changes may come from many different sources.
In still another sense law has been defined as the rales and principles that are applied by the courts to decide lawsuits. These rales and principles fall into three categories: tl) laws that have been passed by legislative bodies, such as the Congress and state legislatures, together with the federal Constitution and the state constitutions and treaties that have been duly entered into; (2) common law or case law - the law that is derived from cases decided by the courts; and (3) procedural rales that determine how lawsuits are handled in the courts with regard to rules of evidence, enforcement of judgments, appeals, and related matters. It will be noted that the first two elements provide the rules that are applied by the courts to decide controversies and that the third provides the machinery whereby these rules of what is called substantive law are given effect and applied to resolve controversies.
Термін "law" в англійській мові в значенні "право" як наука, спеціальність чи система і їх області або галузі, відноситься до неісчісляемим іменником JU] і використовується без артикля або з певним артиклем: the study of law, commercial law; the law of nations, а в значенні "закон", "правило поведінки" чи "процедура" термін "law" відноситься до обчислюються іменником | З] і використовується, в єдиному й у множині: а Bill becomes aJawj the laws of a game і т. д.
Переведіть питання і дайте відповідь на них: 1.
How do people use the word "law" in everyday life? 2.
What must be recognized in considering numerous definitions and philosophy of law? 3.
What do the income tax laws require? 4.
Thus, what can be said about law in connection with all issues and disputes in our society?
18 травня What is your attitude to the opinion that law is both an instrument of change and a result of changes that take place in the society? 6.
What is moving ahead the law or the society? 7.
In what way is the law brought into line with the changing needs of society? g. What are the three categories of rules and principles applied by the courts? 9. What is provided by the elements of these categories?
IZJ Переведіть на слух:
Помер ™ ™ порядок; to set forth; вирішувати спори; income tax laws; піддаватися покаранням; remedy; схвалення і визнання; to put pressure on legislators, загальне право; case law; матеріальне право; enforcement; показання свідків; generally binding rules; державне вплив; essence of law; state and law,
ГЯ Переведіть письмово:
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