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Алімов В. В.. Юридичний переклад: практичний курс. Англійська мова: Навчальний посібник. Вид. 3-е, стереотипне. - М.: Ком Книга. - 160 с., 2005 - перейти до змісту підручника

LESSON WHAT is LAY /?

1

TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS law

jurisprudence

to set forth to maintain order to resolve disputes to impose responsibility to have a legal claim against 'aw and order settlement of disputes income tax laws to fail

improper deductions

t0 be subjected to penalties

remedies -

право, закон -

юриспруденція, правознавство, законо

ведення, судова практика-викладати, пояснювати-підтримувати порядок-вирішувати спори-покладати , накладати відповідальність-мати право (претензію) вимоги к..,-право та порядок-рішення суперечок-закони про прибутковий податок-потерпіти невдачу; не мати успіху-неправильне утримання (податку)-піддаватися покаранням-засоби судового захисту - заподіювати

to wrong

issues and disputes

public will

to be ahead of the law

generally binding rules law responding to the goals approval and recognition to bring into line with essence of law

шкоду, здійснювати правопорушення

суперечки і конфлікти громадське бажання, бажання (воля) суспільства випереджати право загальнообов'язкові правила право, яке відповідає цілям схвалення і визнання вирівнювати сутність права

to put pressure on legislators чинити тиск на законодавців enactment of laws прийняття законів

to decide lawsuits вирішувати судові справи

common law загальне право

case law прецедентне право

procedural rules-процесуальні правила

evidence показання свідків, улика

enforcement примус, примусове виконан

нання

judgjelment 'substantive судове рішення, вирок law to resolve матеріальне право

controversies state вирішувати спори

pressure (action) державний вплив

INTRODUCTORY EXERCISES

II Переведіть наступні пропозиції на російську мову: 1.

In our society law plays an important role. 2.

It is necessary to bear in mind that the law affects people in several ways, 3.

When it helps ordinary people to reach just agreements across social, economic and international barriers, law seems to be regarded as a good thing. 4.

When it involves time and money and highlights people's inability to cooperate informally, law seems to be an evil, but a necessary one that everyone should have a basic knowledge of. 5.

One important distinction made in many countries is between private [or civil) and public law. 6.

Civil law concerns disputes among citizens within a country, and public law con cerns disputes between citizens and the state or between one state and another. 7.

The English word "law" refers to limits upon various forms of behaviour, 8.

Some laws are descriptive: they simply describe how people, or even natural phenomena, usually behave.

16 g Other laws are prescriptive - they prescribe how people ought to behave. 10 The speed limits imposed upon drivers are laws that prescribe how fast we should drive.

GT1 Знайдіть у тексті і переведіть словосполучення:

Те resolve disputes; to impose responsibility; concept of law; to maintain order; to have a legal claim; improper deduction ; income tax law; approval and recognition; to decide lawsuits, to resolve controversies

Q Переведіть письмово текст,

звертаючи особливу увагу на термін "law":

What is Law?

In everyday lite people use the word law in many different ways.

Actually the word law is very difficult to define. There is a field of law that is known as "jurisprudence", which analyzes the concept of law and is concerned with the philosophy of law. Throughout the centuries people have attempted to define law and to set forth its role in society.

In considering the numerous definitions of law and philosophy of law it must be recognized that one of the roles of law is to maintain order and that this is the function of the criminal laws. Another role of law is to resolve disputes that arise between individuals and to impose responsibility if one person has a legal claim against another. Between these two extremes of what might be called law and order on the one hand and settlement of disputes on the other, there are many situations that cannot be so clearly defined. For example, the income tax laws require that a person pay an income tax. If he fails to do so, or if he fails to declare all his income or takes improper deductions, he may be subjected to penalties, but he has also failed to live up to his obligations to society. In any event it is important that one bear in mind that the law is not simply a statement of rules of conduct but is also the means whereby remedies are afforded when one person has wronged another.

In one sense all issues and disputes in our society - political, social, religious, economic, or otherwise-ultimately become legal issues to be resolved by the courts. Thus it can be said that law is simply what the courts determine it to be as an expression of the public will in resolving these issues and disputes.

Another view of law is that it is a method of social control - an instrument of social, political, and economic change. 'Really law is both an instrument of change and a result of changes that take place in our society. It is difficult to determine whether the law brings about changes in our society or whether changes in society bring about a change in the law. In our legal system both are true. The law-respond-'ng to the goals, desires, needs, and aspirations of society is in a constant state of change. Sometimes the law changes more rapidly that does the attitude of the majority of society. In this event the law and our legal system provide leadership in about changes. At other times our society is ahead of the law in moving in new directions, and changes are brought about by the people who act according to their new attitude and convictions. When these changes are accepted by the rest of society, it often happens that the law then gives approval and recognition of the changes, and the law has thus been brought into line with the changing needs of society. For example, in the field of ecology various groups have put pressure on legislators to clean up the air and water. As a result of this laws have been enacted that require that devices be installed to control pollution. Here the public pressure resulted in the enactment of laws and the law was a follower rather than a leader. It is important to note that the law is not static - that it is constantly changing and that the impetus for the changes may come from many different sources.

In still another sense law has been defined as the rales and principles that are applied by the courts to decide lawsuits. These rales and principles fall into three categories: tl) laws that have been passed by legislative bodies, such as the Congress and state legislatures, together with the federal Constitution and the state constitutions and treaties that have been duly entered into; (2) common law or case law - the law that is derived from cases decided by the courts; and (3) procedural rales that determine how lawsuits are handled in the courts with regard to rules of evidence, enforcement of judgments, appeals, and related matters. It will be noted that the first two elements provide the rules that are applied by the courts to decide controversies and that the third provides the machinery whereby these rules of what is called substantive law are given effect and applied to resolve controversies.

COMMENTARY

Термін "law" в англійській мові в значенні "право" як наука, спеціальність чи система і їх області або галузі, відноситься до неісчісляемим іменником JU] і використовується без артикля або з певним артиклем: the study of law, commercial law; the law of nations, а в значенні "закон", "правило поведінки" чи "процедура" термін "law" відноситься до обчислюються іменником | З] і використовується, в єдиному й у множині: а Bill becomes aJawj the laws of a game і т. д.

EXERCISES

Переведіть питання і дайте відповідь на них: 1.

How do people use the word "law" in everyday life? 2.

What must be recognized in considering numerous definitions and philosophy of law? 3.

What do the income tax laws require? 4.

Thus, what can be said about law in connection with all issues and disputes in our society?

18 травня What is your attitude to the opinion that law is both an instrument of change and a result of changes that take place in the society? 6.

What is moving ahead the law or the society? 7.

In what way is the law brought into line with the changing needs of society? g. What are the three categories of rules and principles applied by the courts? 9. What is provided by the elements of these categories?

IZJ Переведіть на слух:

Помер ™ ™ порядок; to set forth; вирішувати спори; income tax laws; піддаватися покаранням; remedy; схвалення і визнання; to put pressure on legislators, загальне право; case law; матеріальне право; enforcement; показання свідків; generally binding rules; державне вплив; essence of law; state and law,

ГЯ Переведіть письмово:

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Інформація, релевантна "LESSON WHAT is LAY /? "
  1. ДОДАТОК № 5.
    Lay (make up) a dialogue using these expressions: Can / could you do me a favour? Bear in mind that ... It is worth ... Ask T., P., N., S. If it's worth: - going to disco; - studying; - visiting the opera; - hometask is worth doing. Translate the sentences: 1. Я думаю, тобі варто прийняти його пораду. 2. Я допоможу тобі, але май на увазі, що я зайнятий. 3. Цей фільм варто того,
  2. LESSON 11 PUBLIC LAW. INTERNATIONAL LAW
    international law-міжнародне право / міжнародний закон-укладати політичні та еко-TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS to make political and economic treaties Medieval Europe the Canon Law Law Merchant to mediate rivalry ('raivalril to call for equal treatment an early international human rights law The League of Nations to lead to important international legislation the 1951
  3. Lesson 4. Classifications of Law
    TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS classifications of Law aspects of law legal principals rules of law to decide lawsuits 'egal procedure to conduct a trial to take an appeal lt0 enforce judgement Procedural law to enforce and protect rights an agreement - класифікація права - аспекти, види права - правові принципи, норми - норми права , правові норми, прин ципи панування права
  4. LESSON 8 CIVIL LAW. LAW OF TRUSTS
    law of trusts TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS trust trustee the legal owner fiduciary beneficiary law of equity to impose trust express trust a settlor / settler T a settler of trust J private trust other trusts are implied-правові норми довірчої власності, право довірчої власності - віра, довіра, кредит; довіряти; довірча власність, розпорядження майном
  5. LESSON 6 CIVIL LAW, LAW OF CONTRACTS
    lays tor sale. Most systems of law have similar requirements about offer and acceptance, legal intention, and consideration. They also consider the capacity of contractors; that is. whether they were legally entitled to contract. In English law there are some special rales if one of the contractors is a company, rather than an individual, under the age of 18, or insane. Legal systems have
  6. LESSON 5 CIVIL AND PUBLIC LAV /
    TERMS AND EXPRESS ONS private law civil law branch of Law public law disputes among citizens disputes between citizens and the state law of contracts law of torts law of trusts state law probate law family law criminal law procedural criminal law well being constitutional law private citizen inheritance unjust enrichment law of persons legal remedies criminal procedure
  7. LESSON 2 SOURCES OF LAW
    TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS statutes enacted by legislatures cases decided by the courts source of law legal system to be patterned after ... to codify laws to reduce laws to statutes statutes must be in keeping with the constitution to overrule a statute to violate constitutional provisions written law unwritten law Also Included under this heading the law of the land case law to set forth
  8. LESSON 17 CIVIL AND CRIMINAL PENALTIES
    TERMS AMD EXPRESSIONS civil and criminal penalties forfeiture punishment a fine specific performance injunction criminal offenses offence (offense) the offender community service a social institution prison sentences are suspended to offend to impose sentence a life sentence a review {parole) board parole deprivation of liberty readjustment prison cells the prisoners
  9. LESSON 7 CIVIL LAW. LAW OF TORTS
    TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS law of Torts wrongful act tort of conversion to be the subject of civil law disputes criminal prosecution to have enough evidence public law and order tortions ['txtjuasj act tort of trespass to sue tort of nuisance tort of negligence breach of a legal duty of care vicarious [vai'kearias] liability to be remediable in tort tortfeaser (committer of the tort)
  10. LESSON 9 PUBLIC LAW. CRIMINAL LAW
      laysia. In general, however, there is quite a lot of agreement among states $ s to which acts are criminal A visitor to a foreign country can be sure that stealing, physically attacking someone or damaging their property will be unlawful. But the way at dealing with people suspected of crime may be different from his own country. I-I Переведіть питання н тексту і дайте відповідь на них (рекомендується
  11. LESSON 15 THE JURY
      TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS the grand jury prospective defendant the pertinent proceeding to cross-examine witnesses on tbe defendants 'behalf to describe the testimony to have provision for .., the prosecutor to be empowered to make formal accusation to be convened at regular intervals to be impaneled to have broad investigative powers to compel the attendance of witnesses to
  12. LESSON 10 PUBLIC LAW. CONSTITUTIONAL LAW
      TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS конституційне право; державне право; конституційний закон; основний закон rules to be obeyed правила (норми права), яким потрібно підкорятися authority knowledge of the law constitutional law cases to be unconstitutional the local authority illegitimate the equality of individuals a formal written Constitution to enable citizens to take legal ас-
  13. LESSON 14 OFFICERS OF THE COURT
      preparation for trial trial to precede the trial the defense / defence to enter a motion to challenge the jurisdiction to file л demurrer a motion for dismissal to interview prospective witnesses TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS - підготовка до судового процесу, приготування до судового разбира тельству - судовий розгляд; судовий процес; слухання справи по суті - передувати
  14. LESSON ^ Л 19 TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS
      legal profession а solicitor to handle legal matters drawing up of documents wills divorce papers to present cases in higher courts a barrister 140 професія юриста / адвоката; юридична професія; юристи соліситор стряпчий; юрисконсульт (амер.); атторней обвинувачення (в деяких штатах) розглядати , розбирати судові справи складення, оформлення документів заповіту документи
  15. LESSON 13 THE JUDICIAL BRANCH. THE SYSTEM OF COURTS IN THE UNITED STATES
      layer federal court system special courts the Court of Claims The Tax Court 'The Court of Costoms and Patent Appeals the judiciary the national (federal) judiciary the state judiciary to review a state court decision superior courts courts of small claims to declare State laws unconstitu tional ; to delegate to the Federal Government тяжба, судовий спір, процес
  16. LESSON 20 LAWYERS AT WORK
      :-Правові справи / питання-хто офіційно отримав кваліфікує-TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS legal affairs \ legal matters J who has become officially qualified to qualify attorney public prosecutor banister цію для роботи, хто став офіційно придатним для роботи ... -Визначати, кваліфікувати-атторней; адвокат; повірений-публічний, суспільний / державний обвинувач-баррістер
  17. LESSON 16 A SUMMARY OF COURT PROCEDURES
      lays no direct role. Although the civil work of trial courts is diverse, four types of cases seem to be the most common: 1) contract cases, when one party to a contract claims that the other party has violated its terms; 2) personal injury cases, which in turn constitute the largest part of the field called tort law; 3) domestic relations cases involve marriage, divorce, and related matters; 4)
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